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Title:Uporaba "otrok-vojakov" v luči mednarodnega prava
Authors:Milješić, Petja (Author)
Petrič, Ernest (Mentor) More about this co-author... New window
Language:Slovenian
Work type:Final reflection paper
Tipology:2.11 - Undergraduate Thesis
Organization:EVRO-PF - Nova Univerza - European Faculty of Law
Abstract:Skozi zgodovino je bila uporaba otrok v oboroženih spopadih vedno prisotna, tako v pomožnih kot tudi v direktnih vlogah. V mednarodnem pravu se prvič pojavi potreba po zaščiti otrokovih pravic z Ženevsko konvencijo o otrokovih pravicah leta 1924. Kasneje se je varstvo poglobilo in leta 1977 se v obeh protokolih k Ženevski konvenciji izpostavi rekrutiranje in uporabo otrok v spopadih. Leta 1989 Konvencija o otrokovih pravicah prvič definira otroka kot vsako osebo, mlajšo od 18 let. S Konvencijo 182 je Mednarodna organizacija dela leta 1999 uvrstila obvezno rekrutiranje mlajših od 18 let med najhujše oblike otroškega dela. Leta 2000 je bil sprejet Izbirni protokol h Konvenciji o otrokovih pravicah iz leta 1989 glede udeležbe otrok v oboroženih spopadih ali OPAC. Težava je, da postavlja dvojne standarde, ene za vladne oborožene sile, druge za nevladne oborožene skupine. Leta 2002 Rimski statut uvrsti rekrutiranje in uporabo otrok, mlajših od 15 let, med vojne zločine. S Pariškimi načeli in Pariškimi zavezami iz leta 2007 so se za "otroke-vojake" zavzele države, mednarodne in nevladne organizacije iz celega sveta, na čelu z Unicefom. Zasnovali so osnovo, ki nalaga nove smernice in praktične ukrepe v skladu z novejšimi mednarodnimi standardi, za izpust, razorožitev in reintegracijo. Odgovorne za rekrutiranje je obsodilo Mednarodno kazensko sodišče. Posebno sodišče za Sierro Leone pa je imelo pristojnost tudi nad "otroki-vojaki", starimi 15-18 let. Na te otroke je treba gledati kot na žrtve in jih obravnavati z dostojanstvom ter si prizadevati za njihovo reintegracijo.
Keywords:otroci vojaki, mednarodno pravo, oboroženi spopadi, otrokove pravice
Year of publishing:2020
Publisher:[P. Milješić]
Source:Ljubljana
COBISS_ID:44426499 Link is opened in a new window
UDC:341.3:342.7(043.2)
Note:Dipl. delo 1. stopnje bolonjskega študija; Nasl. z nasl. zaslona; Opis vira z dne 27. 12. 2020;
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Downloads:73
Files:.pdf RAZ_Miljesic_Petja_i2020.pdf (465,23 KB)
 
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Secondary language

Language:English
Title:Uporaba otrok-vojakov v luči mednarodnega prava
Abstract:Throughout history, children have always been used in armed conflicts, both in assisting and direct roles. The international law first observed the need to protect children's rights with the 1924 Geneva Declaration of the Rights of the Child. The protection of the rights intensified, highlighting the recruitment and use of children in conflicts in both protocols of the Geneva Declaration in 1977. In 1989, the Convention on the Rights of the Child first defined child as every person, aged below 18. International Labour Organisation's Convention no. 182 classified mandatory recruitment of persons, aged below 18, as one of the worst forms of child labour. In 2000, Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child (OPAC) was adopted, relating to the involvement of children in armed conflicts. It is problematic as it sets double standards, some for state armed forces and other for non-state armed groups. In 2002, the Rome Statute classified the recruitment and use of children, aged below 15, as a war crime. With the 2007 Paris Principles and Paris Commitments, countries, international and non-governmental organisations from across the world, such as UNICEF, advocated for child soldiers. They outlined a plan, laying down new guidelines and practical measures in accordance with new international standards for the release, disarmament and reintegration of child soldiers. The recruiters were convicted by the International Criminal Court. The special court for Sierra Leone had the jurisdiction over child soldiers, aged between 15 and 18. These children need to be considered as victims and treated with dignity. Moreover, efforts must be made to ensure their reintegration.


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